Amazing Physical Geography and Fascinating Geology of Turkey

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Chimney in Cappadocia

Cave Church Paintings - 10th C.

Cave Church Paintings – 10th C.

We visited several sites in Turkey where the physical geography and geology was unlike any other place I’d visited before. Cappadocia and Pamukkale are both sites where I was stunned by the amazing feats that Mother Nature could pull off – I mean creating a landscape of fluted rocks sticking up from an arid plain, and placing a huge mountain of calcite in the middle of nowhere is very impressive!

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House dug out of a chimney

Three volcanoes erupting frequently created the chimneys of Cappadocia. Lava flow formed a type of rock called tuff – a light porous rock formed by the hardening of volcanic ash. Wind and rain cut this rock into valleys of steep cliff faces with pointy and unusual chimneys sticking straight up out of the ground. At different times between the 3rd century C.E. and the 12th century C.E., the people of Cappadocia lived inside these rock formations, carving multi-level houses out of the soft stone. These Cappadocians were Christian; therefore, they also carved tombs, churches, nunneries, and chapels out of the chimneys. They would paint images of Jesus, Mary, various saints and disciples on the walls, some polychromatic and others monochromatic. The region of Cappadocia was amazing, I could go for a short walk through the middle of what felt like a desert and be able to visit these old cave houses and churches without restrictions. The feeling of exploration was exhilarating, and I imagined that my family and I were explorers finding these historic places for the first time.

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Some calcite pools on the side of the mountain

The physical geography and geology of Turkey continued to amaze me as we carried on to the small town of Pamukkale and its fascinating calcite mountain. This calcite mountain was created by a series of earthquakes. These quakes opened up numerous hot springs in this area. The water inside the springs has a high content of minerals, especially calcite. When the hot water evaporates and loses its warmth, the calcite that did not evaporate solidifies leaving white residue on any object that the water flowed over.

 

 

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Walking up the side of the mountain

The water from these hot springs flows over the mountainside and descends over one kilometer to the bottom. This creates a mountain that appears to be covered in snow from afar. In Turkish, Pamukkale means “Cotton Castle”, and after seeing this mountain of white from a distance, surrounded by cotton fields, I couldn’t agree more with its name. It definitely looked like a glacier in the middle of other green lush mountains. Though, given that it was over 30 degrees Celsius outside, a glacier would have been impossible!

 

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Walking up the side of the mountain

To protect the calcite deposits and to keep these clean and white, we had to remove ours shoes before entering the site and stepping on the calcite deposits. The water is continually flowing and these deposits form a hard-ridged pattern, similar to the ridges in sand on a beach caused by the waves. We entered the site from the base of the mountain and had to walk up the side of it. As we ascended, the water became increasingly warmer and pools appeared where we enjoyed wading in the warm turquoise water.

 

 

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Ruins in Heliopolis

At the top of Pamukkale rests the ancient city of Hieropolis. Once considered the city of the gods, anyone who was in need of healing came to the calcite springs to be cured. The people believed that the waters were magical. How else could such huge and amazing formations be created? They came from many far away places to be cured of their illnesses. Unfortunately, the water had virtually no healing powers. Because the diseased and injured people came from many different regions of Turkey, there are many different types of mausoleums, tombs, sarcophagi, and coffins located here. Today, the Necropolis of Hieropolis is one of the biggest and most diverse burial grounds in the world. Also located in Heliopolis are greatly preserved Greek ruins including massive columns, the remains of countless temples, old aqueducts, a huge amphitheater and much more!

Our experience at Hieropolis was similar to our time exploring the ancient houses and churches of Cappadocia. We could run around and explore almost the entire site with no rules or restrictions. It was astonishing that we were allowed to walk freely through such old and precious ruins. In most other countries that we have been in, guards were constantly telling us that we weren’t allowed walk too close to various ruins, never mind actually walking on them!

Exploring the physical geography and geology of Turkey was an amazing and fascinating experience that I thoroughly enjoyed!

Mom, Matt & I in Goreme, Cappadocia

Mom, Matt & I in Goreme, Cappadocia

We Slept in a Cave Hotel!

We Slept in a Cave Hotel!

Goreme, Capadoccia

Goreme, Capadoccia

Paintings in the cave churches, circa 10th century

Paintings in the cave churches, circa 10th century

 

Ampitheatre in Heliopolis, Turkey

Amphitheatre in Heliopolis, Turkey

Ruins at Heliopolis, Turkey

Ruins at Heliopolis, Turkey

Underground Cities – Cappadocia, Turkey

Matthew in KaymakaliWe visited two underground cities, Kaymakli and Derinkuyu, while in Turkey. There are over two hundred and fifty underground cities in Cappadocia. Kaymakli is the widest underground city in Cappadocia and Derinkuyu is the deepest. The cities were originally built by Hittites for protection from invading armies. The cities grew and became more advanced over the centuries.

Both of these cities had a big ventilation shaft because when people live underground they would need air. The Kaymakli shaft was about 40 meters deep and the Derinkuyu shaft was about 55 meters deep. In Kaymakli, rocks above blocked off the top of the shaft, whereas in Derinkuyu you could see the sunlight at the top of the shaft. Both had wet and dry wells. Wet wells are where the city would get water from and dry wells are where the water is stored. Kaymakli could house over 3500 people and Derinkuyu could house over 10000 people.

Walking in the Underground City

Walking in the Underground City

When I first entered Kaymakli, I was excited because I had never been in an underground city before. Inside the underground city there were tunnels that led you to dug out rooms. Most of these were living rooms, some were kitchens, some were food storages, some were wineries, and some areas were for animals. On top of some of the living rooms there were bedrooms. You could climb up the wall to get to the bedroom or take the tunnel a bit higher to get to the door. This would probably be pretty fun to climb up to your bedroom at night.

Stone Door - Rolls Into Place

Stone Door – Rolls Into Place

 

 

 

To protect the underground cities the people who live there had to have traps. They had holes in the ceiling for spears, and bigger holes in the ceiling for men to throw hot oil on the enemy if the enemy entered the city. These traps meant that the enemy could not breach the city. They also had big rolling stone doors that can only be opened or closed from the inside by three or four men by rolling the circular doors into place. From the other side the enemy could not budge the door. I really liked the underground cities because of its traps and how people could live underground. ☺

Where does this tunnel lead?

Where does this tunnel lead?

Walking in the Tunnels

Walking in the Tunnels

Food & Animal Storage Areas

Food & Animal Storage Areas